In daily life, the detergents we commonly use are mainly detergent and laundry detergent, mainly to help clean the items we need to wash. Since detergent contains a lot of chemicals, we'd better wear gloves to protect our hands. In order to increase the decontamination effect and adapt to various washing needs, a variety of fillers, such as rosin, water glass, clay, flavor, coloring agent, disinfectant, bleaching agent, etc., are also added.
Detergent is a product specially formulated for cleaning through the washing process. The main components are usually composed of surfactants, builders and additives. There are many types of detergents. According to the type of dirt removal, it can be divided into heavy-duty detergent and light-duty detergent; according to the shape of the product, it can be divided into powder, block, paste, slurry and liquid. form.
Detergents are mainly divided into fertilizer (fragrance) soap and synthetic detergent. Among synthetic detergents, washing powder accounts for about 2/3, liquid detergents account for about 1/3, and solid synthetic detergents are relatively few.
It is usually composed of surfactants, builders and additives, and surfactants are the main components.
The Function Of Detergent
Change the surface activity of the water and reduce the surface tension of the water. The detergent interacts with the dirt on the clothes so that the dirt can be separated from the clothes. It can be simply expressed as: fabric·dirt+detergent→fabric+dirt·detergent.
Composition of detergent
Detergent is a product formulated according to a certain formula. The essential ingredient in detergent formulations is surfactant, and auxiliary ingredients include additives, foam promoters, ingredients, fillers, etc. Surfactant is a substance that has a significant effect on the surface behavior of the system despite its small amount. They can reduce the surface tension of water and play a role in wetting, solubilizing, emulsifying, and dispersing. Detergent aids are substances that enable surfactants to fully exert their active effects, thereby enhancing the washing effect. Ningbo Fanhao Industry is a manufacture specializing in high-quality lkyl polyglucoside surfactants.
1. The structure of surfactants
Surfactants are known as "industrial monosodium glutamate", which refers to substances with fixed hydrophilic and lipophilic groups that can be aligned on the surface of the solution and can significantly reduce the surface tension. The surface active water group, the other end is a lipophilic group; the hydrophilic group is usually a polar group, such as carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, amino or amine group and its salt, but also hydroxyl, amide, ether Bonds, etc.; and lipophilic groups are often non-polar hydrocarbon chains, such as hydrocarbon chains with more than 8 carbon atoms.
2. Surfactants are classified according to the dissociation properties of polar groups as follows:
(1) Anionic surfactants: such as fatty acid salt used as common soap, sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate used in most household laundry detergents, and sodium fatty alcohol sodium sulfate used as raw material for cosmetics.
(2) Cationic surfactants: Commonly used varieties include benzalkonium chloride (Zermin) and benzalkonium bromide (Zermin). It is characterized by high water solubility, relatively stable in acidic and alkaline solutions, and has good surface activity and bactericidal effects.
(3) Zwitterionic surfactants: Lecithin, amino acid type, betaine type. It has the properties of an anionic surfactant in alkaline aqueous solution and has good foaming and decontamination effects; in acidic solution, it has the properties of cationic surfactant and has strong bactericidal ability.
(4) Nonionic surfactants: fatty acid glycerides, fatty acid sorbitan (Span), polysorbate (Tween), polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer, etc., which are often used as emulsifiers and dispersants.
(5) Gemini surfactants: Two or more identical or almost identical surfactant monomers are combined through chemical bonds, and the amphiphilic components are connected by a linking group at or near the hydrophilic head group. Connected together.
Compared with ordinary surfactants, the adsorption capacity of Gemini surfactants at the solution interface is 100-1000 times larger. This means that Gemini surfactants are more efficient than ordinary surfactants. The concentration of gemini surfactants required to reduce the surface tension of the solution, foam or form emulsions or microemulsions is lower than that of ordinary surfactants.
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